Unique procedure of application of the sneha to the eyes is called as akshitarpana. This procedure is useful both in healthy as well as diseased persons. In healthy persons, akshitarpana is carried out to protect the eye from degeneration due to ageing process and to improve the eyesight. For the purpose of the therapeutic effects, this procedure is advocated in clients suffering from the disease of the eye. The eye is considered to be a local route of drug administration. Systemic absorption from this route is minimal or absent. In contrast to this, a high concentration of the drug can be achieved locally by applying the medicines to the eye. Thus akshitarpana gives desired results in clients suffering from the diseases of the eye.
Following are the diseases where this unique procedure is found to be very much beneficial.
|Tamahpravesha||Darkness in front of the eyes.|
|Netra-stabdhata||Stiffness of the eyes.|
|Netra-shushkata||Dryness of the eyes|
|Netra-abhighata||Injury to the eyes|
|Vata-pittaja||Diseases of the eye due to vitiation|
|Akshi-vikara||Vata and pitta dosha|
|Sheernapakshama||Falling of the eye lashes.|
|Avilekshana||Blurring of the vision|
|Krichhra-unmilana||Difficulty in opening and closing eyes|
|Anyatovata||Fifth cranial nerve atrophy|
|Vataparyaya||Fifth cranial nerve disorder|
|Shukra||Opacity of the cornea|
- Mahatriphaladyaghrita * Indicated in all the disease of the eye.
- Triphaladyaghrita * Indicated in all the disorder of the eye, also ideal for healthy persons to promote the functioning of the Eye.
- Drakshadighrita * Indicated in kacha (cataract), shirahshula (head ache)
- Ghananadasiphadighrita * Indicated in abhishyanda (conjunctivitis), Adhimantha (glaucoma).
- Tadagashuktisaradighrita * Indicated in avranashukla (opacities of cornea),
- Arma (pterygium), abhishyanda (conjunctivitis)
The procedure of akshitarpana include making of a frame of black gram paste around the eyes, followed by pouring the medicated ghee upon the eyes. The eye is made to open and close alternatively several times and then the ghee is removed to complete the procedure. After chanting the swastivachana hymn or prayer the therapist should treat the client as detailed below.
PREPARATION OF THE CLIENT
The client is first subjected to different forms of shodhana procedures like vamana and virechana and nasya depending upon the requirement. Following this akshitarpana should be planned. As per the convenience or requirement, this procedure may be performed may be performed either in the morning or evening hours. Akshitarpana is advisable in empty stomach or after the digestion of the foods consumed. It is better to avoid the akshitarpana if the atmospheric weather is either too hot or too cold. Cloudy weather is also not ideal for carrying out the akshitarpana. If the client is physically tired or mentally worried for any reason or if he is emotionally disturbed, it is better to postpone the treatment. It is better not to subject the client to this procedure if he is suffering from the acute manifestation of eye disorders. To carry out akshitarpana in the morning hours, after evacuating the bowel and bladder, and after washing the face client is asked to lie down on the treatment table in supine position.
PREPARATION OF THE PASTE
About 200 grams of black gram floor is taken in a vessel. And to which about 100 ml or clean water is added. This mixture is beaten well to form a sticky paste. Thus prepared paste should be thick enough to shape it into any form.
MAKING THE FRAME AROUND THE EYES
Half of the paste is taken and is rolled into a shape of an elongated hem. Free ends of this hem are stuck together to make a circular rim. This rim is then placed around one of the eyes touching the eyebrow above, nose medially, maxillary prominence below and the lateral border of the orbit laterally. Before placing the rim, it is better to make the area around the eye wet with a cotton swab soaked in water. This whole rim is then properly stuck to the skin. For this, a small portion of the rim touching the skin is pressed against the underlying skin with the help of a finger. This forms a firm frame around the eyes. While making the frame, one should be particular that there is no any rent in this frame lest ghee will leak out of this and may cause inconvenience during the procedure of akshitarpana. Thus approximately 2-inch high boundary is prepared around the eyes. The similar frame is also made around the other eye by using the other half of the flour paste.
HEATING THE GHEE
The medicated ghee that is to be applied is made lukewarm, by heating it in a water bath.
APPLYING THE GHEE
The client is asked to close his eyes. And then lukewarm medicated ghee is poured with the help of a dropper spoon on to both eyes at its medial end, one after the other. Ghee is poured up to the level of eyelashes.
CLOSING AND OPENING THE EYES
Ones the ghee is poured on the eyes, the client is asked to alternatively and gently open and close his eyes just beneath the ghee. And the procedure is continued for certain period.
REMOVAL OF THE GHEE
A rent is formed at the outer border of the frame by separating the frame from the skin with the help of a probe. This will drain out all the ghee from the eyes. Then the frame of the gram flour is also removed.
Duration of akshitarpana is not uniform in all clients suffering from diseases of the eye. Rather the duration of akshitarpanavaries according to the affection of the anatomical part of the eye or depending upon the vitiated dosha involved. The same is elaborated in the following lines.
- In this diseases of the eye lids (vartma) akshitarpana is done for approximately 30 to 32 second (100 matra).
- Akshitarpana for approximately 96 second (300 matra) is required in diseases related to junctions (sandhi) of the eye.
- If the client is suffering from the disease of the sclera (sita) of the eye a single sitting of akshitarpana for 160 second (500matra) is indicated.
- Akshitarpana for 224 seconds (700 matra) is advisable in diseases related to the cornea (asita) part of the eye.
- In the diseases of the lens (drishti) portion of the eye, akshitarpana should be kept for approximately 256 second (800 matra)
- Akshitarpana is continued for a duration of 320 seconds (1000 matra) in diseases involving all the above five structures of the eye.
- 320 seconds of akshitarpana is needed in case of the disease glaucoma (adhimantha).
- Diseases of the eye due to vitiation of vatadosha are treated by akshitarpana for 30 to 32 second (100 matra).
- Vitiated pitta dosha in the eye is treated with akshitarpana for 192 seconds (600 matra).
- In healthy persons for the promotion of the eye sight akshitarpana is done for 192 seconds (600 matra).
- One sitting of akshitarpana every day is indicated in diseases of the eye due to vitiation of vata dosh. Akshitarpana on alternative days is beneficial in diseases of the eye due to vitiation of pitta dosha. Repeated akshitarpana with a gap of 2 days in between is ideal in healthy persons as well as in clients suffering from diseases of the eye due to kapha vitiation.Single sitting of akshitarpana is ideal in diseases due to morbidity of vatadosha. A course consisting of three sitting of the akshitarpana is indicated in diseases of the eye due to the morbid pitta dosha. Further five sittings of akshitarpana are needed in diseases due to vitiated kaphadosha. Continuing the akshitarpana till the client develops the desired effect of proper akshitarpana is the general rule.
SYMPTOMS OF PROPER EFFECT OF AKSHITARPANA THERAPY
- Prakasha-kshamata * Ability of the eye to tolerate the bright light
- Vaishadyam * Clarity of the vision.
- Laghulochanam * Feeling of lightness of the eyes.
- Varnapatavam * Ability to clearly appreciate the colors.
- Sukhasvapna * Getting sound sleep.
- Sukhaavabodhitvam* Easy awakening at the proper time.
- Yadhinirvrtti * Subsidence of illness.
- Kriyalaghava * No discomfort while opening and closing the eyes.
SYMPTOMS INDICATIVE OF INADEQUATE EFFECT
- Rukshanetrata * Dryness of the eyes.
- Avilata * Sense of exhaustion in the eyes.
- Asradhyam * Excessive watering of the eyes.
- Asahamrupadarshane * Intolerance to light.
- Vyadhivriddhi * Worsening of the disease process